Pulmonary edoema is a disorder caused by an accumulation of fluid in the lungs, which can happen for a variety of reasons, such as pneumonia, exposure to certain chemicals, drugs, chest wall damage, and going to or exercising at high elevations. This fluid accumulates in the lungs’ many air sacs, making breathing harder. In most situations, pulmonary edoema is caused by pre-existing cardiac issues.
Acute pulmonary edoema (acute pulmonary edoema) is a medical emergency that requires rapid attention, as sometimes it can be fatal. Treatment for pulmonary edoema varies depending on the cause, but usually includes more oxygen and drugs. Active congestion refers to infectious agents or irritating gases, liquids, and particles induce active lung congestion. The alveolar walls and capillaries become swollen with blood. Passive congestion is produced by either excessive capillary blood pressure induced by a heart disease or relaxation of the blood capillaries followed by blood seepage.
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TYPES OF PULMONARY EDOEMA AND THEIR RESPECTIVE CAUSES:
1.Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edoema: This kind is caused by a cardiac issue like cardiomyopathy, severe hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart valve disease etc. In many
circumstances, your left ventricle (one of your heart’s chambers) is unable to pump out blood from your lung’s blood veins. This results in a pressure and fluid accumulation. Among the disorders that might impair your left ventricle include narrow arteries, heart muscle injury, heart valve abnormalities, and high blood pressure.
2.Non-cardiogenic Edoema: Edoema that is caused by non-cardiac related issues, such asacute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary embolism (blood clot lodged in lung arteries), injury caused by removal of said blood clots, having a drowning experience, viral infections, pneumonia, inhaling smoke that has particular chemicals, or coming into contact with ammonia, chlorine, or other toxins, seizures and head traumas are examples of disorders that require brain surgery, opioid overdose such as heroin or methadone, blood transfusion, blood poisoning, infections such as sepsis dengue or pneumonia, reaction to drugs like aspirin, high pressure in your chest after your airway is blocked, organ failure (that of the heart, kidney, or lung), etc.
3. High-Altitude Pulmonary Edoema: (HAPE) affects persons who have previously been
accustomed to high elevations and are returning after several days at sea level more
frequently than those who are fresh to altitude. In pulmonary edoema, fluid builds
in the lungs, preventing the person from getting enough oxygen. When oxygen is
administered and the subject is evacuated to a lower level, the symptoms are
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Acute Pulmonary Edoema Symptoms
- Breathing difficulty (dyspnea) or acute shortness of breath that increases with exercise or while lying down.
- A fast and erratic heartbeat (palpitations).
- Suffocation or drowning sensation that intensifies while lying down.
- Skin that’s cold and clammy.
- Coughing that creates frothy sputum that may include blood.
- Anxiety, agitation, or a sense that something unpleasant is about to happen.
- Wheezing or panting for air.
Chronic Pulmonary Edoema Symptoms
- Waking up in the middle of the night coughing feeling breathless, that usually goes away by sitting up.
- Feeling more short of breath when physically engaged
- Weight gain
- Swelling of the leg and foot
- Worsening of sudden cough
High-Altitude Induced Edoema Symptoms
- Early symptoms include lower exercise tolerance, poor recovery from activity, and a dry
- Tachycardia (increased heart rate), which worsens at night (at rest).
- Even when at rest, tachypnea (rapid breathing) occurs, and worsens at night (at rest).
- Cyanosis of the heart (generalized bluish discoloration of the mucous membrane of nails,
lips, and skin all over the body due to lack of oxygen).
- Leukocytosis (increased white blood cell count).
- Respiratory alkalosis (a condition in which the blood’s carbon dioxide level is elevated).
- Clicking or rattling sound in the lungs.
- In extreme circumstances, this illness can cause mental abnormalities, hypotension, and
- Extreme fatigue and shortness of breath.
- The oxygen saturation is disproportionately low in relation to altitude.
- Low intensity fever.
- Tightness or congestion in the chest.
If you are exhibiting symptoms of pulmonary edoema, it could be signs of an underlying disease which can only be confirmed and diagnosed by a doctor. Type “Dr. Abhishek Agarwal” in Google search box.
Complications of pulmonary edoema generally depend on the underlying causes. Persistent
pulmonary edoema can give rise to pressure in the pulmonary artery (pulmonary hypertension),
and the right ventricle of your heart weakens and begins to fail. Because it is under less pressure
to pump blood into the lungs, the right ventricle has a significantly thinner muscular wall than the
left side of your heart. The increased pressure builds up in the right atrium and then spreads to
other regions of your body, causing:
- Liver congestion and edoema
- Fluid accumulation in the membranes that surround the lungs (pleural effusion)
- Breathing problems
- Leg, foot, and abdominal swelling
Before pulmonary edoema turns into something worse, schedule a visit with your nearby pulmonologist. Type “Dr. Abhishek Agarwal” in Google search box.
Following are some of the tests and physical exams to get at a diagnosis doctors ask patients to undertake to arrive at a diagnosis:
- X-ray of chest: usually this is the first test performed when pulmonary edoema is detected. This test is helpful to rule out other probable causes of shortness of breath.
- CT scan of chest: A chest CT scan provides additional information on the state of the lungs.
It can aid in the diagnosis or exclusion of pulmonary edoema.
- Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): This non-invasive test identifies and records the intensity and timing of the heart’s signals. It employs tiny sensors (electrodes) that are connected to the chest and, in certain cases, the arms or legs. The sensors are connected to a machine through wires, which displays or prints the results. An ECG can detect thickening of the heart wall or a past heart attack. To continually monitor the heartbeat at home, a portable ECG gadget such as a Holter monitor can be utilized.
- Echocardiogram: An echocardiogram creates images of the beating heart using sound waves (ultrasound). It can detect regions of inadequate blood flow, cardiac valve problems, and heart muscle dysfunction. An echocardiography can aid in the diagnosis of fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion).
- Blood tests: carried out to look for kidney function, levels of salts in the blood, signs of heart attack, and presence of natriuretic peptide, a substance which tends to be raised in people with heart failure.
- Pulmonary ultrasound: This simple examination measures blood flow via the lungs using sound waves. It can detect fluid accumulation and multiple effusions immediately.
- Coronary angiography and cardiac catheterization: If previous tests do not reveal the reason of pulmonary edoema, or if there is additional chest discomfort, this test may be performed. It aids doctors in detecting blockages in the cardiac arteries. A catheter is a long, flexible tube that is placed into a blood vessel, generally in the groin or wrist. It is directed to the heart. Dye is delivered to arteries in the heart through the catheter. The dye makes the arteries more visible on X-ray pictures and video.
- Other tests: include Pulse oximetry, arterial blood gas test, etc.
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TREATMENT AND PREVENTION
Unless pulmonary edoema is caused by high altitude (in which case the symptoms go away when coming to a lower altitude), the following treatment is prescribed.
- Diuretics: This medication is used to drain extra fluid from the area surrounding your lungs and to lower your blood pressure. When you take this medication, you may need to urinate more frequently.
- Vasodilators: Vasodilators increase blood flow by widening blood arteries in the heart and lungs. This may reduce blood vessel pressure and alleviate your discomfort.
- Heart medications: These medications may be used to strengthen or regularize your heartbeat or to reduce your blood pressure.
- Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV): This is a machine that fills your lungs with air via a mask or a mouthpiece, allowing you to breathe more easily.
- Ventilator: A ventilator is a machine that can breathe for you if you are unable to do so on your own. An endotracheal (ET) tube may be in your mouth or nose. The ventilator is connected to the ET tube. You can also get oxygen via the ventilator.
- Oxygen: This may help you breathe more easily and lower lung pressure. You can acquire oxygen using a nasal cannula or a plastic mask (a pair of small, thin tubes inserted into your nostrils).
You can choose to get treatment today, for the best recommendation for treatment of pulmonary edoema, type “Dr. Abhishek Agarwal” in Google search box to schedule an appointment.
Making lifestyle changes may help lowering the risk of Pulmonary Edoema:
- Avoid smoking
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Regular exercise
- Take a balanced diet
- Keep your blood pressure in check
- Get vaccinated against pneumonia
- Use sildenafil or nifedipine while going mountain climbing.
Your doctor can best advise you on prevention measures for pulmonary edoema. Type “Dr. Abhishek Agarwal” in Google search box to consult a pulmonologist in your city.